What is a toxicological study?
What is a toxicological study?
Toxicology studies are used to characterize the toxicity profile of a drug by identifying its impact on organ structure and / or functionality. This includes assessment of the severity and reversibility of toxicity, as well as dose ranges and their relationship to exposure.
What is meant by toxicological?
Toxicology is a field of science that helps us understand the harmful effects that chemicals, substances, or situations, can have on people, animals, and the environment.
What is toxicological data?
Toxicological data provide the basis for evaluating the potential health risks of chemicals to humans. Information from human and animal studies is used to characterize the nature of the toxic effects of chemicals and to predict their risk to human health under given exposures.
What is toxicological effect?
Toxicological effects are dependent on the concentration of chemicals within the target organ and on the duration of exposure. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition in the nervous system.
What are the main objectives of toxicological examination?
The goals of toxicity testing are to identify possible adverse effects of exposure to environmental agents, to develop dose-response relationships that can elucidate the severity of effects associated with known exposures, and ultimately to predict the effects of exposure of human populations.
What are 3 types of toxicology?
Subdivisions of Toxicology About 35 years ago, however, T.A. Loomis divided the science of toxicology into three major subdivisions: environmental, economic, and forensic. These subdivisions were in large part based on how humans would come in contact with potentially harmful chemicals.
Why study environmental toxicological assessment What are its purposes?
Environmental toxicology, or ETOX, as students like to call it, is the study of the effects of chemicals on human health and the environment. It combines elements of biology and chemistry and other fields to help you understand the impact chemicals have on environmental systems and in living organisms.
What are the toxicological information sources?
Information on toxic chemicals is available at the following sites: Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET – www.toxnet.nlm.nih.gov ). Several databases, such as the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) and the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), can be found in the TOXNET database.
What are the three main objectives to toxicological investigations?
The three primary concerns of forensic toxicology investigations include determining whether or not a harmful substance could cause death, impair judgment, and change behavior, or has a legitimate presence in the body. The process of conducting a forensic toxicology investigation starts with sample collection.
What is the purpose of toxicology testing?
A toxicology test (“tox screen”) checks for drugs or other chemicals in your blood, urine, or saliva. Drugs can be swallowed, inhaled, injected, or absorbed through the skin or a mucous membrane. In rare cases, a tox screen may check your stomach contents or sweat.
What is the basic principle of toxicology?
The fundamental principles of toxicology include dose-response relationships, how chemicals enter the body and how they are metabolized and excreted, major health outcomes of intoxications, basics of physiology, toxicokinetics, and cellular toxicology.
What is environmental toxicology example?
Environmental toxicology is a field of science that is concerned with the effects of biological, physical, and chemical hazards on living organisms. This includes, for example, the impact of agricultural pesticides on animals and humans who are exposed to sprayed vegetation either in-field or after harvesting.
What are the three types of stability studies?
Types of Drug stability studies: – Stability studies are mainly of following types:
- Long term stability.
- Intermediate stability.
- Accelerated stability.
- In-use stability.
What is toxicology and its types?
The traditional definition of toxicology is “the science of poisons.” As our understanding of how various agents can cause harm to humans and other organisms, a more descriptive definition of toxicology is “the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms”.
What is toxicological paradigm?
The toxicological paradigm presumes a direct passage from exposure to disease. With pathogens, points of feedback add additional complexity. For example, exposure to influenza may lead to development of immunity, clinical disease, or both.
What are the different types of toxicology?
There are four primary types of toxicology screening:
- medical testing.
- employment drug testing.
- forensic analysis.
- athletics testing.
When was toxicology first used?
But forensic toxicology has a history that goes back much further. It has been around for hundreds of years. In approximately 50 000 BCE, prehistoric people were applying poison to spears for hunting animals.
What is fish acute toxicity testing?
Fish acute toxicity tests are used to assess potential risk to fish species and for other ecological regulatory needs associated with surface water contaminants.
What are aquatic toxicology tests?
Aquatic toxicology tests ( assays ): toxicity tests are used to provide qualitative and quantitative data on adverse (deleterious) effects on aquatic organisms from a toxicant.
What is the toxicology of fishes?
Filling this void, The Toxicology of Fishes, written by recognized experts, covers toxic responses ranging from reduced reproduction and/or abnormal development, growth, and differentiation.
How do I choose the best book on fish toxicology?
When looking for a book on fish toxicology, you might find one that discusses the biochemical and molecular aspects, or one that focuses aquatic toxicology in general.