Which are the most common invasive serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis?

Which are the most common invasive serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis?

meningitidis organisms are encapsulated, or surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. This capsular polysaccharide is used to classify N. meningitidis into 12 serogroups. Six of these serogroups cause the great majority of infections in people: A, B, C, W135, X, and Y (12).

How does Neisseria meningitidis enter the blood?

Few bacterial pathogens are able to reach the subarachnoidal space and among those, Neisseria meningitidis is the one that achieves this task the most constantly when present in the bloodstream. Meningeal invasion is a consequence of a tight interaction of meningococci with brain endothelial cells.

How does bacterial meningitis enter the bloodstream?

The illness occurs when the bacteria break through the protective lining of the nose and throat, and enter the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, they multiply rapidly, doubling their numbers every 30 minutes. In some people the bacteria cross the blood-brain barrier, causing meningitis.

Is Neisseria meningitidis invasive?

Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis includes meningitis, septicemia, and other infections. Any suspected or confirmed case of invasive N. meningitidis is an emergency and should be reported immediately by telephone to the local health department, which must inform the NJDOH Communicable Disease Service.

Where is Neisseria meningitidis most likely to be found in the body?

N. meningitidis bacteria are found in the nose and throat without causing disease.

What is invasive meningococcal disease?

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is an uncommon but very serious infection that occurs when the meningococcal bacteria ‘invades’ the body from the throat or nose. It usually appears as meningitis or sepsis.

How does meningitis cross the blood brain barrier?

In order to cause meningitis, bacterial pathogens must survive in the bloodstream and penetrate or transmigrate across the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which is primarily comprised of a single layer of specialized endothelial cells.

How do children get meningitis?

Meningitis is usually caught from people who carry these viruses or bacteria in their nose or throat but are not ill themselves. It can also be caught from someone with meningitis, but this is less common.

How do babies get bacterial meningitis?

Bacterial meningitis in newborns usually results from an infection of the blood ( sepsis. Newborns with sepsis appear generally ill—they are listless, do not feed well, often have a gray color, and may have… read more ). The infection is most commonly caused by the following bacteria: Group B streptococci.

Where does Neisseria meningitidis come from?

N. meningitidis is spread through saliva and respiratory secretions during coughing, sneezing, kissing, chewing on toys and through sharing a source of fresh water. It has also been reported to be transmitted through oral sex and cause urethritis in men.

What is the most common presentation of invasive meningococcal disease?

Meningitis is the most common presentation of invasive meningococcal disease and is found in about 50% of cases in the United States.

Where can Neisseria meningitidis be found?

Does Neisseria meningitidis grow on blood agar?

N. meningitidis is a fastidious organism, which grows best at 35-37°C with ~5% CO2 (or in a candle-jar). It can grow on both a blood agar plate (BAP) and a chocolate agar plate (CAP).

What are the symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis?

Meningococcal septicemia (aka meningococcemia)

  • Fever and chills.
  • Fatigue (feeling tired)
  • Vomiting.
  • Cold hands and feet.
  • Severe aches or pain in the muscles, joints, chest, or abdomen (belly)
  • Rapid breathing.
  • Diarrhea.
  • In the later stages, a dark purple rash.

What organs does Neisseria meningitidis affect?

Doctors call meningitis caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal meningitis. When someone has meningococcal meningitis, the bacteria infect the lining of the brain and spinal cord and cause swelling.

How does Neisseria meningitidis infect?

People spread meningococcal bacteria to other people by sharing respiratory and throat secretions (saliva or spit). Generally, it takes close (for example, coughing or kissing) or lengthy contact to spread these bacteria. Fortunately, they are not as contagious as germs that cause the common cold or the flu.

What is pediatric meningitis?

Key Points About Meningitis in Children. Meningitis is an inflammation of the thin membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. It is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid. A fungus or parasite may also cause meningitis.

How does a child catch meningitis?

What is the most common cause of meningitis in infants?

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). This bacterium is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in infants, young children and adults in the United States. It more commonly causes pneumonia or ear or sinus infections. A vaccine can help prevent this infection.