What are the pleiotropic benefits of statins?

What are the pleiotropic benefits of statins?

Pleiotropic effects of statins include improvement of endothelial dysfunction, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, antioxidant properties, inhibition of inflammatory responses, and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.

Does statins have pleiotropic effects?

Cholesterol-independent or “pleiotropic” effects of statins involve improving or restoring endothelial function, decreasing oxidative stress and vascular inflammation, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, inhibiting the thrombogenic response, and lowering oxidative stress.

Do statins improve cardiovascular outcomes?

Low-density lipoprotein lowering with statins has convincingly and consistently proven to reduce cardiovascular events in both primary and secondary prevention. However, despite high-dose statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk remains and many patients also do not tolerate statins.

How does statins help cardiovascular disease?

Statins don’t just lower cholesterol levels but also reduce the risk of fatty plaques breaking off from walls of your arteries, reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Some people may be able to reduce their cholesterol to safe levels by changing their diet, or exercising more.

What is meant by pleiotropic effects?

Though pleiotropic effects are defined as a single gene affecting multiple systems or determining more than one phenotype, lately statin pleiotropy is referred as statins exerting multiple pharmacological activities.

What is pleiotropy effect?

Pleiotropy is a phenomenon increasingly recognized by the usage of hypothesis-free exome sequencing rather than candidate gene approaches to identify novel disease genes. It refers to the effect that mutations in one and the same gene may lead to multiple, seemingly unrelated diseases.

What are the benefits of statins?

Statins are effective at lowering cholesterol and protecting against a heart attack and stroke, although they may lead to side effects for some people. Doctors often prescribe statins for people with high cholesterol to lower their total cholesterol and reduce their risk of a heart attack or stroke.

Who benefits from statin therapy?

These results suggest that statins are most likely to benefit adults aged 50-75 years with a life expectancy of greater than 2.5 years and less likely to benefit those with a life expectancy of less than 2.5 years.

What does a statin actually do?

Statins are a group of medicines that can help lower the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL cholesterol is often referred to as “bad cholesterol”, and statins reduce the production of it inside the liver.

What is pleiotropy effect with example?

In genetics, Pleiotropy is defined as the expression of multiple traits by a single gene. Pleiotropy is derived from a Greek word meaning more ways. A simple example of a Pleiotropy is phenylketonuria is a disease. It is a genetic disorder caused by the low metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine in the body cells.

What are the examples of pleiotropy?

One of the most widely cited examples of pleiotropy in humans is phenylketonuria (PKU). This disorder is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is necessary to convert the essential amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine.

Which of the following is an example for pleiotropy?

Sickle cell anaemia :-
Sickle cell anaemia :- sickle cell anaemia is an example of pleiotropic gene because here the mutation in the single gene carries out a number of changes throughout the body and affects the body in different ways.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of taking statins?

Statins are a group of drugs that can reduce high cholesterol, lowering the risk of atherosclerosis and heart problems. Statins typically cause mild side effects, if any, but these drugs can, rarely, cause significant, and even life threatening, adverse effects.

How many people benefit from statins?

More than 200 million people around the world take statin drugs for their heart health.

Which group would most benefit from statins?

The four patient groups that would benefit from statin therapy include the following: 1) patients with clinical ASCVD, 2) patients with LDL-C >190 mg/dL, 3) patients aged 40–75 years with diabetes and LDL-C from 70–189 mg/dL but without clinical ASCVD, and 4) patients aged 40–75 years with a 10-year ASCVD risk of >7.5% …

What is the importance of statin therapy?

Statins help lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as “bad” cholesterol, in the blood. They draw cholesterol out of plaque and stabilize plaque, Blaha says.

Do statins reduce blood pressure?

Conclusion: Statins lower blood pressure by cholesterol-independent mechanisms, and the reduction is larger in individuals with higher blood pressure and those with low HDL-C. Statins may be beneficial in preventing hypertension and may contribute to better blood pressure control in hypertensive patients.

What new therapeutic effects are being attributed to statins?

The most important positive effects of statins are anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, anti-diabetes, and antithrombotic, improving endothelial dysfunction and attenuating vascular remodeling besides many others which are discussed under the scope of this review.

What are the actions of statins?

Statins inhibit an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase, which controls cholesterol production in the liver. The medicine blocks the enzyme, thereby slowing down the cholesterol production process. Statins typically work well and can reduce LDL cholesterol by around 30% — or even 50%, with a high dosage.

Are pleiotropic effects of statins related to cholesterol-lowering properties?

Research indicates that some of the pleiotropic effects of statins may be unrelated to the cholesterol-lowering properties of the drugs. Others may even be fully dissociated from inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, and many take place at very low drug concentrations. This review focuses on effects that have special cardiovascular relevance.

Do statins improve endothelial function?

Indeed, recent studies indicate that some of the cholesterol-independent or “pleiotropic” effects of statins involve improving endothelial function, enhancing the stability of atherosclerotic plaques, decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation, and inhibiting the thrombogenic response.

How do statins affect lipid levels?

Second, many effects of statins, such as improvement in endothelial function, decreased inflammation, increased plaque stability, and reduced thrombogenic response, could all be accounted for, to some extent, by lipid lowering.

Do statins affect psychological well-being?

Thus, statins exert pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects involving both antigen presenting cells (APC) and T cell compartments, and they may be beneficial for multiple sclerosis and other Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases. A possible association between lipid-lowering drug therapy and psychological well-being has been an issue of debate.