What are the 4 politeness strategies?
In order to maintain and save person’s face, people are supposed to use politeness strategies. Brown and Levinson (1987) suggest that there are four types of politeness strategies. They are bald on-record, negative politeness, positive politeness, and off-record strategy.
What are face strategies?
In sociolinguistics and conversation analysis (CA), politeness strategies are speech acts that express concern for others and minimize threats to self-esteem (“face”) in particular social contexts.
What is a face threatening act in linguistics?
A Face-threatening Act (FTA) is an act (linguistic or non-linguistic) that threatens someone’s positive or negative face. It may be bald or mitigated, and it may be on record or off record.
What is positive and negative face?
Positive face refers to one’s self-esteem, while negative face refers to one’s freedom to act. These two aspects of face are the basic wants in any social interaction; during any social interaction, cooperation is needed amongst the participants to maintain each other’s face.
What are positive face needs?
Positive face needs refer to our needs to be respected, honored, included, approved, liked, and considered competent and trustworthy. Negative face, on the other hand, encompasses our need for privacy, independence, autonomy, freedom, and right to make our own decisions.
Why face threatening act is important?
Protecting face is important for communicating and behaving successfully with others, even though it may not be accomplished consciously by talk participants. A “face-threatening act” (FTA) is one that would make someone possibly lose face, or damage it in some way.
Is interrupting a face threatening act?
Since the interruption occurred right at the end of her opponent’s statement and was not meant to criticize; this interruption can be classified as non-face threatening because it does not threaten the speaker’s face or the hearer’s face.
How do you keep negative face needs?
Respecting negative face needs tends to entail acknowledging social distance or power in the relationship between the interlocutors. For example, High School students tend to address their teacher as Mr/Ms/Mrs/Miss …, acknowledging the teacher’s status as an authority figure in their relationship with the student.
What are examples of positive face?
The positive face is defined as the individual desire of a person that his/ her personality is appreciated by others. Furthermore, this includes the way a person wants to be perceived by his/ her social group. One example for positive face is the appreciation of individual achievements.
Is expressing gratitude a face threatening act?
Examples of FTAs to the speaker’s positive face include apologies, acceptance of a compliment, self-humiliations, and confessions. Some of the FTAs that are threatening to the speaker’s negative face include expressing gratitude, accepting a thank-you, an apology or an offer, and making promises.
What is a positive face threatening act?
Positive face-threatening acts. Positive face is threatened when the speaker or hearer does not care about their interactor’s feelings, wants, or does not want what the other wants. Positive face threatening acts can also cause damage to the speaker or the hearer.
Why are compliments not face threats?
So when someone compliments us and we accept the compliment, it threatens our own image of ourselves as a humble modest person. That’s why accepting compliments is so difficult for so many people because they feel the face threat. Examples of this are farting, burping, falling asleep, vomiting, etc.
What is threatening negative face?
Negative face is threatened when an individual does not avoid or intend to avoid the obstruction of their interlocutor’s freedom of action. It can cause damage to either the speaker or the hearer, and makes one of the interlocutors submit their will to the other.
How do I get positive face needs?
Respecting positive face needs entails using language that shows a low social distance (closeness, rapport, solidarity and intimacy), with the listener, reader or other interlocutor.
What is a face threatening act?
A face-threatening act (FTA) is an act which challenges the face wants of an interlocutor. According to Brown and Levinson (1987), face-threatening acts may threaten either the speaker’s face or the hearer’s face, and they may threaten either positive face or negative face.
What are some ways to threaten someone’s positive face?
There are other ways in which you can threaten to hear hearer’s positive face, or their desire to be liked and approved of. For example, mentioning of taboo or divisive topics, being very irreverent, and using profanity are things that can also threaten the hearer’s positive face.
How do you use threaten face in a sentence?
Sometimes the whole object of a threat or a dare is to threaten face, but if you want to do these actions and not threaten face, you have to do them politely. Remember the hearer’s positive face is their desire to be liked, to be approved of, and to be wanted by other people.
Is politeness a threat to the face?
The face-threatening acts can easily threaten the face of involved parties, either positively or negatively. Another significant politeness theory is that put forward by Fraser in 1990 that assumes that, politeness is a central part of interactions and takes a discourse-based rather than speech act-based approach.